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GULLIES AND TORRENTS

FLASH FLOOD

 

A flash flood is a rapid flooding of geomorphic low-lying areas: washes, rivers, dry lakes and basins. It may be caused by heavy rain associated with a severe thunderstorm, hurricane, tropical storm, or meltwater from ice or snow flowing over ice sheets or snowfields. Flash floods may occur after the collapse of a natural ice or debris dam, or a human structure such as a man-made dam, as occurred before the Johnstown Flood of 1889. Flash floods are distinguished from a regular flood by a timescale of less than six hours. The temporary availability of water is often utilized by foliage with rapid germination and short growth cycle, and by specially adapted animal life.

Causes

Flash floods can occur under several types of conditions. Flash flooding occurs when it rains rapidly on saturated soil or dry soil that has poor absorption ability. The runoff collects in gullies and streams and, as they join to form larger volumes, often forms a fast flowing front of water and debris. Flash floods most often occur in normally dry areas that have recently received precipitation, but may be seen anywhere downstream from the source of the precipitation, even many miles from the source. In areas on or near volcanoes, flash floods have also occurred after eruptions, when glaciers have been melted by the intense heat. Flash floods are known to occur in the highest mountain ranges of the United States and are also common in the arid plains of the southwestern United States. Flash flooding can also be caused by extensive rainfall released by hurricanes and other tropical storms, as well as the sudden thawing effect of ice dams. Human activities can also cause flash floods to occur. When dams, constructed for hydro-electricity, have failed, large quantities of water can be released and can destroy everything within its path.

Significant flash floods

 

  • 1889: Johnstown Flood, more than 2,200 people dead
  • 1903: Heppner Flood of 1903; Oregon, United States: 247 dead, 25% of the city
  • 1938: Los Angeles Flood of 1938, California, U.S.: 115 dead
  • 1938: Kopuawhara flash flood of 1938, Mahia Peninsula, New Zealand: 21 dead
  • 1952: Lynmouth disaster, England: 34 dead
  • 1963: Vajont dam disaster, Italy: 1910 dead
  • 1967: Flash flood in Lisbon, Portugal: 464 dead
  • 1969: Nelson County, Virginia, US: 123 dead
  • 1971: Kuala Lumpur floods, Malaysia: 32 dead
  • 1972: The Black Hills flood, South Dakota, U.S.: 238 dead
  • 1976: The Big Thompson River flood, which killed 143 people in Colorado, U.S.
  • 1997: 11 die in flash flood in Antelope Canyon, a popular tourist attraction north of Page, Arizona.
  • 2007: Sudan floods, 64 people killed.
  • 2009: September 26 in Metro Manila primarily Marikina city, Taguig City, and Pasig City; and many municipalities of the provinces of Rizal, Bulacan and Laguna taking more than a hundred lives and leaving thousands of affected residents homeless. It also submerged several municipalities under feet deep of water for several weeks.
  • 2009: October 1, Giampilieri, Messina, 37 people were killed. See also 2009 Messina floods and mudslides.
  • 2010: Madeira archipelago, 42 dead
  • 2011: Lockyer Valley, Queensland, Australia. 21 people dead, mainly in the town of Grantham.
  • 2011: Philippines, Cagayan de Oro and Iligan City, 17 December 2011. At least 1200 people killed as reported by Red Cross. See also Tropical Storm Washi
  • 2012: Krasnodarskiy Kray, Russia. 172 people were killed by a flash flood that struck at 2 A.M. local time on 7 July. Main cities that were hit are Krymsk and Gelendzhik.[8][9]
  • 2012: Uttarakhand, Uttarakhand, India: 822 dead
  • 2012: Pokhara, Nepal - 32 dead + 30 missing [May 5, 2013, Nearly 3 weeks damming in Seti Gorge in Upper Seti Basin, Rock and Avalanche fall from Western Part of Annapurna IV].
  • 2013: November 17–19, Northeast Sardinia: 18 deaths, 3000 homeless. See also 2013 Sardinia floods
  • 2013: Port Louis, Mauritius - 11 dead
  • 2013: Argentina floods - 99+ dead
  • 2013: Kedarnath, Uttarakhand, India: 5000 approximately dead[10]
  • 2014: Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir, India: 300 approximately Dead.[11]
  • 2015: May 25, Central Texas floods - 25+ dead

HYPERCONCENTRATED FLOW

 

A hyperconcentrated flow is a two-phase flowing mixture of water and sediment in a channel which has properties intermediate between fluvial flow and debris flow. Large quantities of sand may be transported throughout the flow column, but the transport of suspended and bedload sediment along the channel depends on flow turbulence and high flow velocities, and coarser sediment remains as bedload. Hyperconcentrated flows do not show the characteristics of non-Newtonian flow typical of debris flows, e.g., levees, coarsening up or matrix supported deposits.

 

Hyperconcentrated flows may contain anywhere from 5–60 % sediment by volume. Higher concentrations tend to be characteristic of debris flows, less of normal fluvial flow.

SEDIMENT TRANSPORT

 

Sediment transport is the movement of solid particles (sediment), typically due to a combination of gravity acting on the sediment, and/or the movement of the fluid in which the sediment is entrained. Sediment transport occurs in natural systems where the particles are clastic rocks (sand, gravel, boulders, etc.), mud, or clay; the fluid is air, water, or ice; and the force of gravity acts to move the particles along the sloping surface on which they are resting. Sediment transport due to fluid motion occurs in rivers, oceans, lakes, seas, and other bodies of water due to currents and tides. Transport is also caused by glaciers as they flow, and on terrestrial surfaces under the influence of wind. Sediment transport due only to gravity can occur on sloping surfaces in general, including hillslopes, scarps, cliffs, and the continental shelf—continental slope boundary.

 

Sediment transport is important in the fields of sedimentary geology, geomorphology, civil engineering and environmental engineering (see applications, below). Knowledge of sediment transport is most often used to determine whether erosion or deposition will occur, the magnitude of this erosion or deposition, and the time and distance over which it will occur.

Fluvial sediment transport

 

In geology, physical geography, and sediment transport, fluvial processes relate to flowing water in natural systems. This encompasses rivers, streams, periglacial flows, flash floods and glacial lake outburst floods. Sediment moved by water can be larger than sediment moved by air because water has both a higher density and viscosity. In typical rivers the largest carried sediment is of sand and gravel size, but larger floods can carry cobbles and even boulders.

Fluvial sediment transport can result in the formation of ripples and dunes, in fractal-shaped patterns of erosion, in complex patterns of natural river systems, and in the development of floodplains.

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